A Double Taxation Agreement (DTA), also known as a tax treaty or tax convention, is an agreement between two countries that aims to eliminate or mitigate the double taxation of income or gains arising in one country and received by residents of the other country. Double taxation occurs when the same income is taxed by two or more countries, leading to potential tax inefficiencies and unfairness for taxpayers.

Key features of a Double Taxation Agreement include:

Allocation of Taxing Rights: A DTA specifies the rules for allocating taxing rights between the two countries involved. It typically determines which country has the primary right to tax specific types of income, such as dividends, interest, royalties, and capital gains.

Avoidance of Double Taxation: The primary objective of a DTA is to prevent or alleviate the burden of double taxation on taxpayers. This is achieved through mechanisms such as tax credits, exemptions, or deductions, which ensure that income taxed in one country is not taxed again in the other country.

Prevention of Tax Evasion and Avoidance: DTAs include provisions to prevent tax evasion and avoidance schemes that exploit differences in tax laws between countries. These provisions may include measures such as the exchange of information, mutual assistance in tax matters, and anti-abuse clauses.

Reduction of Withholding Taxes: DTAs often reduce or eliminate withholding taxes on cross-border payments, such as dividends, interest, and royalties, to facilitate international trade, investment, and economic cooperation.

Certainty and Stability: By providing clear rules for the taxation of cross-border income, DTAs promote certainty and stability for taxpayers and businesses engaged in international transactions. They reduce the risk of double taxation disputes and help foster a favourable environment for cross-border trade and investment.